What Is Data Sgp?

Data Sgp is the set of statistics used to measure student learning over time. It includes a variety of measures of student performance such as student achievement, test scores, and graduation rates. Data Sgp also includes a variety of indicators of school climate such as teacher satisfaction, instructional effectiveness, and student engagement. Data Sgp can be used to inform both policy and practice in schools across the nation.

While students’ performance on state assessments may vary from year to year, the SGP can be a useful measure for comparing students in the same grade to identify differences in achievement and growth. However, the SGP estimates are subject to error because latent achievement traits cannot be observed with any level of precision (Akram, Erickson & Meyer 2013; Lockwood & Castellano 2015).

Errors in student SGPs can be minimized by using multiple assessment years for comparison purposes. This is typically done by comparing student SGPs against those of the same baseline cohort of students in each year of the measurement period. The goal is to establish a consistent measurement of student learning that is free from fluctuations due to changes in teacher evaluation criteria, test administration procedures, or student covariates.

SGPs are estimated using least squares regression models and Bayesian inference methods. They compare latent achievement trait models to student growth standards established through teacher evaluation criteria and student covariates. The estimation process imposes certain assumptions on the model and the resulting estimates, which can lead to a range of conclusions about a student’s learning. These conclusions must be carefully weighed against the assumptions made in order to make accurate interpretations and recommendations.

Districts that collect and analyze their own data must be able to access the SGP data in formats compatible with operational analyses. The Macomb and Clare-Gladwin ISDs have both released their SGP data in this format. Using this data with the SGP package requires the use of a database called sgpData, which provides a number of higher level functions that simplify the preparation and storage of student-level SGP data in the LONG format.

The first column in sgpData, ID, provides the unique student identifier. The next five columns, GRADE_2013, GRADE_2014, GRADE_2015, and GRADE_2016, provide the grade level of the student’s state assessment score in each of these years. The last column, SS_2013, SS_2014, SS_2015, and SS_2016, provides the scale scores associated with each of these grades.

The sgpData_INSTRUCTOR_NUMBER field in the sgpData table is an invaluable lookup function that allows districts to connect students who have multiple instructors for one content area with their instructors by matching their instructor identifiers. This information is required in order to accurately assign a student’s SGP estimate to the appropriate instructor. The result is a more reliable SGP estimate. This is especially important if SGPs are being compared across grade levels. Otherwise, the results could be misleading. For example, a student with a low score on a state assessment might have high growth if the instructor was more experienced than the other students in the same grade.